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Nature and Occurrence of Bullying
Definition of Bullying
Bullying across social settings
School Bullying
Bullying among siblings
Bullying in the Worplace
Bullying in Health Care
Bullying Related Mortality
Psychosocial Risks Associated with Bullying
Bullying Prevention
Bullying Detection
Long Term Impact of Bullying



There is a wide range of published research exploring the patterns of school bullying1-4; its epidemiology5-19; its occurrence among vulnerable populations20-33 and perspectives and perceptions about its nature34-40. The understanding of its ecology, has led to awareness about the role and dynamics of those involved in this type of maltreatment as well as the influence of the classroom, school, family and community milieu41-94 . 


There is a wide range of published research exploring the patterns of school bullying1-4; its epidemiology5-19; its occurrence among vulnerable populations20-33, and perspectives and perceptions about its nature34-40. The understanding of its ecology, has led to awareness about the role and dynamics of those involved in this type of maltreatment as well as the influence of the classroom, school, family and community milieu41-94




Patterns of School Bullying

1. Wang J, Iannotti RJ, Luk JW. Patterns of adolescent bullying behaviors: physical, verbal, exclusion, rumor, and cyber.
J Sch Psychol. 2012 Aug;50(4):521-34

2. Turner HA, Finkelhor D, Hamby SL, Shattuck A, Ormrod RK. Specifying type and location of peer victimization in a national sample of children and youth. J Youth Adolesc. 2011 Aug;40(8):1052-67.

3. Crapanzano AM, Frick PJ, Terranova AM. Patterns of physical and relational aggression in a school-based sample of boys and girls. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010 May;38(4):433-45.

4. Wang J, Iannotti RJ, Nansel TR. School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Oct;45(4):368-75.


5. Melzer W, Oertel L, Ottova V; HBSC-Team Deutschland. [Mobbing and violence at school. Trends from 2002 to 2010].Gesundheitswesen. 2012 Jul;74 Suppl:S76-83 In German

6. Jansen PW, Verlinden M, Dommisse-van Berkel A, Mieloo C, van der Ende J, Veenstra R, Verhulst FC, Jansen W, Tiemeier H Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter? BMC Public Health. 2012 Jul 2;12(1):494.

7. Pergolizzi F, Pergolizzi J 3rd, Gan Z, Macario S, Pergolizzi JV Jr, Ewin TJ, Gan TJ. Bullying in middle school: results from a 2008 survey. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2011;23(1):11-8.

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Bullying among middle school and high school students--Massachusetts, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Apr 22;60(15):465-71

9. Arslan S, Savaser S, Yazgan Y. Prevalence of peer bullying in high school students in Turkey and the roles of socio-cultural and demographic factors in the bullying cycle. Indian J Pediatr. 2011 Aug;78(8):987-92.

10. Delfabbro P, Winefield T, Trainor S, Dollard M, Anderson S, Metzer J, Hammarstrom A. Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: prevalence and psychosocial profiles. Br J Educ Psychol. 2006 Mar;76(Pt 1):71-90

11. Dake JA, Price JH, Telljohann SK. The nature and extent of bullying at school. J Sch Health. 2003 May;73(5):173-80.

12. Gofin R, Palti H, Gordon L. Bullying in Jerusalem schools: victims and perpetrators. Public Health. 2002 May;116(3):173-8.

13. Wolke D, Woods S, Stanford K, Schulz H. Bullying and victimization of primary school children in England and Germany: prevalence and school factors. Br J Psychol. 2001 Nov;92(Pt 4):673-96.

14. Nansel TR, Overpeck M, Pilla RS, Ruan WJ, Simons-Morton B, Scheidt P. Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA. 2001 Apr 25;285(16):2094-100.

15. Wang H, Zhou X, Lu C, Wu J, Deng X, Hong L, Gao X, He Y. Adolescent bullying involvement and psychosocial aspects of family and school life: a cross-sectional study from Guangdong Province in China. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e38619.

16. Wilson ML, Bovet P, Viswanathan B, Suris JC. Bullying among adolescents in a sub-Saharan middle-income setting. J Adolesc Health. 2012 Jul;51(1):96-8.

17. Shin JY, D'Antonio E, Son H, Kim SA, Park Y. Bullying and discrimination experiences among Korean-American adolescents. J Adolesc. 2011 Oct;34(5):873-83.

18. Granero R, Poni ES, Escobar-Poni BC, Escobar J. Trends of violence among 7th, 8th and 9th grade students in the state of Lara, Venezuela: The Global School Health Survey 2004 and 2008. Arch Public Health. 2011 Nov 1;69(1):7.

19.  Due P, Holstein BE, Soc MS. Bullying victimization among 13 to 15-year-old school children: results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008 Apr-Jun;20(2):209-21.

Bullying in vulnerable populations

20 Raaska H, Lapinleimu H, Sinkkonen J, Salmivalli C, Matomäki J, Mäkipää S, Elovainio M. Experiences of school bullying among internationally adopted children: results from the Finnish Adoption (FINADO) Study. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2012 Aug;43(4):592-611.

21 Lemstra M, Rogers M, Redgate L, Garner M, Moraros J. Prevalence, risk indicators and outcomes of bullying among on-reserve First Nations youth. Can J Public Health. 2011 Nov-Dec;102(6):462-6

22 Sentenac M, Arnaud C, Gavin A, Molcho M, Gabhainn SN, Godeau E. Peer victimization among school-aged children with chronic conditions. E. Epidemiol Rev. 2012 Jan;34(1):120-8.

23 Puhl RM, Luedicke J, Heuer C. Weight-based victimization toward overweight adolescents: observations and reactions of peers. J Sch Health. 2011 Nov;81(11):696-703.

24 Lindsay S, McPherson AC. Experiences of social exclusion and bullying at school among children and youth with cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34(2):101-9.

25. McCormack LA, Laska MN, Gray C, Veblen-Mortenson S, Barr-Anderson D, Story M. Weight-related teasing in a racially diverse sample of sixth-grade children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Mar;111(3):431-6.

26 Lieberman JA, Weiss C, Furlong TJ, Sicherer M, Sicherer SH. Bullying among pediatric patients with food allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010 Oct;105(4):282-6.

27 Toomey RB, Ryan C, Diaz RM, Card NA, Russell ST. Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Dev Psychol. 2010 Nov;46(6):1580-9.

28 Lumeng JC, Forrest P, Appugliese DP, Kaciroti N, Corwyn RF, Bradley RH. Weight status as a predictor of being bullied in third through sixth grades. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6)

29 van Roekel E, Scholte RH, Didden R. Bullying among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence and perception. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010 Jan;40(1):63-73.

30 Pittet I, Berchtold A, Akré C, Michaud PA, Surís JC. Are adolescents with chronic conditions particularly at risk for bullying? Arch Dis Child. 2010 Sep;95(9):711-6.

31 Hansen KL, Melhus M, Høgmo A, Lund E. Ethnic discrimination and bullying in the Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: the SAMINOR study. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2008 Feb;67(1):97-113.

32 Van Cleave J, Davis MM. Bullying and peer victimization among children with special health care needs. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):e1212-9

33 Weiner MT, Miller M. Deaf children and bullying: directions for future research. Am Ann Deaf. 2006 Spring;151(1):61-70.

Perspectives and perceptions about school bullying

34 Waasdorp TE, Pas ET, O'Brennan LM, Bradshaw CP.  Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies Among Students, School Staff, and Parents. J Sch Violence. 2011 Jan 1;10(2):115-132.

35 Langdon SW, Preble W. The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence. 2008 Fall;43(171):485-503.

36 Ellis AA, Shute R. Teacher responses to bullying in relation to moral orientation and seriousness of bullying. Br J Educ Psychol. 2008 Mar;78(Pt 1):109-25.

37 Baldry AC. 'What about bullying?' An experimental field study to understand students' attitudes towards bullying and victimization in Italian middle schools. Br J Educ Psychol. 2004 Dec;74(Pt 4):583-98

38 Stockdale MS, Hangaduambo S, Duys D, Larson K, Sarvela PD. Rural elementary students', parents', and teachers' perceptions of bullying. Am J Health Behav. 2002 Jul-Aug;26(4):266-77

39 Nicolaides S, Toda Y, Smith PK. Knowledge and attitudes about school bullying in trainee teachers. Br J Educ Psychol. 2002 Mar;72(Pt 1):105- 18

40 Boulton MJ. Teachers' views on bullying: definitions, attitudes and ability to cope. Br J Educ Psychol. 1997 Jun;67 ( Pt 2):223-33

Ecology of school bullying

41 Espelage DL and Swearer SM(Eds.) Bullying in American Schools: A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mawhah, New Jersey 2004, Taylor and Francis e-Library,2008

42 Espelage DL, De La Rue L. School bullying: its nature and ecology. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2011 Nov 4;24(1):3-10.

43 Swearer SM, Wang C, Maag JW, Siebecker AB, Frerichs LJ. Understanding the bullying dynamic among students in special and general education. J Sch Psychol. 2012 Aug;50(4):503-20.

44 Boulton MJ. The effects of victim of bullying reputation on adolescents' choice of friends: Mediation by fear of becoming a victim of bullying, moderation by victim status, and implications for befriending interventions. J Exp Child Psychol. 2012 Jun 13.

45 Bayraktar F.Bullying among adolescents in North Cyprus and Turkey: testing a multifactor model. J Interpers Violence. 2012 Apr;27(6):1040-65.

46 Zaykowski H, Gunter W. Youth victimization: school climate or deviant lifestyles? J Interpers Violence. 2012 Feb;27(3):431-52.

47 Salmivalli C, Voeten M, Poskiparta E Bystanders matter: associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in classrooms. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2011;40(5):668-76.

48 Nishina A. Microcontextual characteristics of peer victimization experiences and adolescents' daily well-being. J Youth Adolesc. 2012 Feb;41(2):191-201.

49 Khoury-Kassabri M. Student victimization by peers in elementary schools: individual, teacher-class, and school-level predictors. Child Abuse Negl. 2011 Apr;35(4):273-82

50 Guerra NG, Williams KR, Sadek S Understanding bullying and victimization during childhood and adolescence: a mixed methods study. Child Dev. 2011 Jan-Feb;82(1):295-310.

51  Obermann ML. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying. Aggress Behav. 2011 Mar-Apr;37(2):133-44

52 Blosnich J, Bossarte R. Low-level violence in schools: is there an association between school safety measures and peer victimization? J Sch Health. 2011 Feb;81(2):107-13.

53 Harel-Fisch Y, Walsh SD, Fogel-Grinvald H, Amitai G, Pickett W, Molcho M, Due P, de Matos MG, Craig W; Members of the HBSC Violence and Injury Prevention Focus Group. Negative school perceptions and involvement in school bullying: a universal relationship across 40 countries. J Adolesc. 2011 Aug;34(4):639-52.

54 Eliot M, Cornell D, Gregory A, Fan X. Supportive school climate and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence. J Sch Psychol. 2010 Dec;48(6):533-53

55 Scholte R, Sentse M, Granic I. Do actions speak louder than words? Classroom attitudes and behavior in relation to bullying in early adolescence. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2010;39(6):789-99.

56 Belacchi C, Farina E. Prosocial/hostile roles and emotion comprehension in preschoolers. Aggress Behav. 2010 Nov-Dec;36(6):371-89

57 Cunningham NJ, Taylor M, Whitten ME, Hardesty PH, Eder K, DeLaney N. The relationship between self-perception of physical attractiveness and sexual bullying in early adolescence. Aggress Behav. 2010 Sep-Oct;36(5):271-81.

58 Jolliffe D, Farrington DP. Is low empathy related to bullying after controlling for individual and social background variables? J Adolesc. 2011 Feb;34(1):59-71.

59 Vervoort MH, Scholte RH, Overbeek G. Bullying and victimization among adolescents: the role of ethnicity and ethnic composition of school class. J Youth Adolesc. 2010 Jan;39(1):1-11.

60 Sapouna M. Collective efficacy in the school context: does it help explain victimization and bullying among Greek primary and secondary school students? J Interpers Violence. 2010 Oct;25(10):1912-27.

61 Fox CL, Elder T, Gater J, Johnson E. The association between adolescents' beliefs in a just world and their attitudes to victims of bullying Br J Educ Psychol. 2010 Jun;80(Pt 2):183-98

62 Khoury-Kassabri M. The relationship between staff maltreatment of students and bully-victim group membership. Child Abuse Negl. 2009 Dec;33(12):914-23.

63 Kim YS, Boyce WT, Koh YJ, Leventhal BL. Time trends, trajectories, and demographic predictors of bullying: a prospective study in Korean adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Oct;45(4):360-7.

64 Elgar FJ, Craig W, Boyce W, Morgan A, Vella-Zarb R. Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Oct;45(4):351-9.

65 Barboza GE, Schiamberg LB, Oehmke J, Korzeniewski SJ, Post LA, Heraux CG. Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: an ecological perspective. J Youth Adolesc. 2009 Jan;38(1):101-21.

66 Bradshaw CP, Sawyer AL, O'Brennan LM. A social disorganization perspective on bullying-related attitudes and behaviors: the influence of school context. Am J Community Psychol. 2009 Jun;43(3-4):204-20.

67 Bowes L, Arseneault L, Maughan B, Taylor A, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children's bullying involvement: a nationally representative longitudinal study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 May;48(5):545-53.

68 Due P, Merlo J, Harel-Fisch Y, Damsgaard MT, Holstein BE, Hetland J, Currie C, Gabhainn SN, de Matos MG, Lynch J. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries. Am J Public Health. 2009 May;99(5):907-14.

69 Lee CH. Personal and interpersonal correlates of bullying behaviors among Korean middle school students. J Interpers Violence. 2010 Jan;25(1):152-76.

70 Burns S, Maycock B, Cross D, Brown G. The power of peers: why some students bully others to conform. Qual Health Res. 2008 Dec;18(12):1704-16.

71 Aslund C, Starrin B, Leppert J, Nilsson KW. Social status and shaming experiences related to adolescent overt aggression at school. Aggress Behav. 2009 Jan-Feb;35(1):1-13.

72 Bacchini D, Affuso G, Trotta T. Temperament, ADHD and peer relations among schoolchildren: the mediating role of school bullying. Aggress Behav. 2008 Sep-Oct;34(5):447-59.

73 Idsoe T, Solli E, Cosmovici EM. Social psychological processes in family and school: more evidence on their relative etiological significance for bullyingbehavior. Aggress Behav. 2008 Sep-Oct;34(5):460-74.

74 Hunter SC, Boyle JM, Warden D. Perceptions and correlates of peer-victimization and bullying. Br J Educ Psychol. 2007 Dec;77(Pt 4):797-810.

75 Spriggs AL, Iannotti RJ, Nansel TR, Haynie DL. Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity. J Adolesc Health. 2007 Sep;41(3):283-93.

76 Georgiou SN. Bullying and victimization at school: the role of mothers. Br J Educ Psychol. 2008 Mar;78(Pt 1):109-25.

77 Twemlow SW, Fonagy P, Sacco FC, Brethour JR Jr. Teachers who bully students: a hidden trauma. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2006 May;52(3):187-98

78 Delfabbro P, Winefield T, Trainor S, Dollard M, Anderson S, Metzer J, Hammarstrom A. Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: prevalence and psychosocial profiles. Br J Educ Psychol. 2006 Mar;76(Pt 1):71-90.

79 Twemlow SW, Fonagy P. The prevalence of teachers who bully students in schools with differing levels of behavioral problems. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;162(12):2387-9.

80 Poteat VP, Espelage DL. Exploring the relation between bullying and homophobic verbal content: the homophobic content agent target (HCAT) scale. Violence Vict. 2005 Oct;20(5):513-28.

81 Veenstra R, Lindenberg S, Oldehinkel AJ, De Winter AF, Verhulst FC, Ormel J. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: a comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Dev Psychol. 2005 Jul;41(4):672-82

82 Fox CL, Boulton MJ. The social skills problems of victims of bullying: self, peer and teacher perceptions. Br J Educ Psychol. 2005 Jun;75(Pt 2):313-28.

83 Twemlow SW, Fonagy P, Sacco FC. The role of the bystander in the social architecture of bullyingand violence in schools and communities. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:215-32.

84 Lee E, Kim M. Exposure to media violence and bullying at school: mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends. Psychol Rep. 2004 Oct;95(2):659-72.

85 Fekkes M, Pijpers FI, Verloove-Vanhorick SP. Bullying: who does what, when and where? Involvement of children, teachers and parents in bullying behavior. Health Educ Res. 2005 Feb;20(1):81-91.

86 Craig WM, Pepler DJ. Identifying and targeting risk for involvement in bullying and victimization. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;48(9):577-82.

87 Baldry AC. Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse Negl. 2003 Jul;27(7):713-32.

88 Laufer A, Harel Y. The role of family, peers and school perceptions in predicting involvement in youth violence. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2003 Jul-Sep;15(3):235-44.

89 Espelage DL, Bosworth K, Simon TR. Short-term stability and prospective correlates of bullying in middle-school students: an examination of potential demographic, psychosocial, and environmental influences Violence Vict. 2001 Aug;16(4):411-26.

90 Naylor P, Cowie H. The effectiveness of peer support systems in challenging school bullying: the perspectives and experiences of teachers and pupils. J Adolesc. 1999 Aug;22(4):467-79.

91 Salmivalli C. Participant role approach to school bullying: implications for interventions. J Adolesc. 1999 Aug;22(4):453-9.

92 Mooij T. Pupil-class determinants of aggressive and victim behaviour in pupils. Br J Educ Psychol. 1998 Sep;68 ( Pt 3):373-85.

93 Rigby K, Cox I, Black G. Cooperativeness and bully/victim problems among Australian schoolchildren. J Soc Psychol. 1997 Jun;137(3):357-68.

94 Wang H, Zhou X, Lu C, Wu J, Deng X, Hong L, Gao X, He Y. Adolescent bullying involvement and psychosocial aspects of family and school life: a cross-sectional study from Guangdong Province in China. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e38619.